Medical Aid Is Not Just Medical Insurance

Private health care in developed and developing nations is largely funded by medical insurance. If it was not for the protection offered to medical insurance members, most would not be able to afford the otherwise costly service in the private health care sector. However, private medical insurance in many developed nations has often proved to be the source of much frustration for consumers. After all, these insurance companies are as profit-driven, avoid risks and look to cut costs in much the same way as any other private enterprise.

One would never think so but South Africa is among the leaders in funding of private health care services. This is largely due to the existence of private medical aids. There are more to these financial products than it being a modified medical insurance plan. Medical aids are privately run non-profit organizations. It is superior to medical insurance in several ways and has greatly contributed to the development of one of the best private health care systems in the world. So much so that private hospital groups in South Africa are now extending their managed health care services to the Middle East and North America.

Medical aid is not just another form of health insurance. Firstly, every person pays the same monthly premium for specific plans irrespective of their health status at the time of joining the scheme. South Africa is known for its massive HIV/AIDS problem. However, with medical aid offerings, even HIV-positive and AIDS patients can join a plan for the same rate as non-positive members. All patients with pre-existing health problems are simply subjected to a waiting period before the scheme will begin covering the costs of treating and managing these conditions. The only time there may be a slight penalty of sorts is if a person joins after the age of 35 years.

Apart from not paying more for a pre-existing ailment, a medical aid in South Africa can also not refuse any person membership based on their health status. Unlike medical insurance plans that sometimes try to short change a member in a bid to keep its profits up, medical aids are not as restrictive. A Prescribed Minimum Benefit (PMB) policy ensures that a person gets access to treatment for a number of chronic illnesses throughout a year irrespective of whether the benefits are exhausted. In addition, medical aids cannot use the contributions of its members in ways to increase its profit. All contributions are pooled together and paid out for the services of ailing members.

As simple as this scheme sounds, they are still financially strong enterprises that are carefully monitored by the South African government and regulatory councils. When one hears of patients being refused life saving drugs, surgery and treatment in developed nations by medical insurance companies, it is baffling how a small developing nation can sustain such an insurance product. South Africa has some 50 million people, with only 20% being able to afford medical aid, yet there are some 100 independent schemes in existence within the country.

3 Main Reasons for Poverty in Africa

The causes of poverty in Africa are deep-rooted, interconnected and paradoxical. Africa, the cradle of humanity, encompasses some of the most resource-rich areas of the planet. Africans would, in fact, be capable of sustaining their economies and even giving aid to other parts of the world. Something, therefore, must have gone terribly wrong for it to be the poorest of all the continents.

The first reason for Africa’s poverty lies in its history and the mindset which this has created both inside and outside its borders. For 3 centuries, the continent was emptied of millions of its strongest people, captured to work as slaves overseas in order to develop other economies. This had the arguable effect of delaying the establishment of economical, political and social structures that might have been comparable with those found elsewhere in the world.

The abolition of slavery opened the door to colonialism, which, while in one sense only a different form of slavery, did bring much-needed benefits such as industrial development, better education and access to medical care. However the colonising Europeans, by means particularly of the bias of the education they provided, groomed Africans to be servants and consumers in a world where white men were the overlords.

At the end of the colonial era, European countries still had need of their old colonies to provide resources for their own continuing development, and neo-colonialism was born. Business contracts were signed in which Europeans blatantly exploited their former colonies while weak or corrupt African leaders failed to negotiate for the benefit of their own people.

The result was that African countries were gripped by impossible debts to foreign regimes, and at the same time ruled by tyrants from among their own people who in many cases were supported by those same foreign regimes. As the rulers took control of the ‘honey pot’ of the natural resources and forced their countrymen into poverty, the seeds of civil war were sown.

Armed conflict, which disrupts the lives of one fifth of all African people and stems directly from the continent’s history, lies behind the poverty of many regions. War makes ordinary life impossible and land unproductive. In addition, it frightens off investors who might otherwise help to boost economic development and create employment.

The second main reason for poverty in Africa can be summarised as poor use of land. This is due partly to lack of education – a historical legacy – and partly to an inability to change. Large areas of land are given over to subsistence farming which, without the use of modern technology, remains inefficient and does not produce anything to sell at market. Hence there is never the money to pay school fees, however low, or to buy the simplest of farm machinery.

Nomadic grazing of livestock was once a way of life, but now population figures are too high and land ownership is too rigid for it to be possible. Over-grazing and over-farming lead to degradation of the land, giving rise to the need for further land to be cleared through slash-and-burn with little regard to the associated loss of biodiversity. Where strict measures – including against poaching – are not put in place, the wild animals which can be a source of revenue through tourism are depleted.

Degradation of the land results in desertification, partly because of the nature of Africa’s soil which is in general made up of sand and laterite with little clay or humus to hold moisture. This soil erodes easily and its high iron and aluminium content means that it bakes hard in the sun and absorbs no rain. Desertification, coupled with the climate change to which it contributes, can result in drought and famine in a poor society with no adequate safety net, and famine drives the population further into poverty.

The third main cause of poverty is directly attributable to the actions of the developed world and can be specifically laid at the door of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Banks. These bodies claim to reduce poverty and yet have been criticized for years for increasing it. Under the flag of neoliberalism, they impose what they call Structural Adjustment Policies (SAP’s) to ensure debt repayment through economic restructuring.

SAP’s decree that repayment of debt must be made a priority over health, education and general development, so the governments of African nations are forced to reduce their spending on the things which most benefit their own people. Loans are granted, therefore, with certain preconditions, the most insidious one being that exports must be increased to provide the cash for repayments. These exports, which may consist of only a very limited range of products, compete with the exports of other countries in a similar situation, and give rise to a glorified price war. This of course has the effect of devaluing them, which favours the importing West, and means that the developing countries struggle increasingly to keep up with their repayments. The rich get richer and the poor get poorer by this means, which has been suggested is in fact the real, cynical underlying agenda of the IMF.

Africa’s poverty is a disgrace in a world of food surpluses and mass communication. However the reasons behind it are far from simple. A history of injustice set in motion a vicious circle of lack of resources to pay for education, and lack of education to produce and refine resources. This is compounded by devastating health problems, climate difficulties, and predation by more economically advanced nations which, while providing assistance under the impetus of their people’s knee-jerk reactions to specific disasters, have yet to change their underlying attitudes.

Adopting AIDS Orphans in Africa

Adopting an AIDS orphan in Africa is one of the ways to help families and communities cope with the ever-increasing number of children orphaned by AIDS in Africa. Many African states resources have been stretched to the limit in an attempt to address the broader effects of the HIV/AIDS situation, especially to assist the high numbers of African AIDS orphan families. However, the governments efforts coupled with those of civil society have not been enough.

Adopting an AIDS orphan is therefore an important intervention because it means saving a life. It means a decreased strain on government resources as that child’s needs – including food, shelter, education, healthcare and other physical and emotional needs – are met by an able and helping hand. To do this is impossible for many African families and communities because they have all been affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic in one way or the other; already they bear some kind of responsibility resulting from this health crisis.

Most of these children are without both parents. In many situations this has left the eldest child in the family, who at times is less than 10 years old, responsible for his/her siblings ranging from any number between 5 to 15 because of the extended family set up and cultures such as polygamy which are still very much practiced in Africa. This responsibility is a burden on that child that they cannot possibly bear for long without succumbing to pressures that may put their own life at risk.

Hence adopting this child, saves his/her life and that of his/her siblings whose plight he/she will speak about. Adoption saves this child from the agony of a life where at a tender they have to deal with the death of both parents whilst at the same time move on and be the head, assume responsibility to care for his/her siblings. The AIDS orphan can grow up like any other child and enjoy being taken care of once adopted. By adopting these children you are giving a better life to one who may be a future leader.

Ending Poverty in Africa – Trade Not Aid Model

A model that I am especially interested in is called RAISE TRADE, and the idea behind this concept is the move away from exporting of raw materials from developing nations and adding value else where. The founder of this model Neil Kelsall is the brains behind a very successful Malagasy chocolate based on the RAISE TRADE model. This model departs from the models that enable cooperatives in Africa to simply own shares of companies as the well as the Fairtrade models, and enables value to be added at source which increases income for the producer as well as the government through tax revenues which is not possible if value is added elsewhere.

How might this work in practice?

Take OTTIMO CAFFE, a specialist coffee roaster from North London looking to source his coffee in a more ethical way, a Uganda based coffee cooperative looking to add value to their coffees before the coffee is exported, so they can earn a higher price for their produce, a government looking to earn more tax revenue from its cash crop , an investor looking to invest in a socially responsible venture, that will bring him good returns at the same time and finally a retailer who must source his products more ethically because his customers demand it!

Everyone of these people have some expertise to bring to the table and the overall goal here is to produce a fully processed coffee that can be exported to the western world at the Cooperative headquarter in Uganda. This is indeed that live case that I am involved in and I have been responsible for bringing all the parties together. I must add that it is early days yet as we work the details out but all the parties are in agreement that this is the way forward in the fight against poverty.

If this model is that fantastic I hear you say, why isn’t it being adopted on a much wider scale? Well that is the question I would like an answer too. But one thing is certain, this is doable and Neil has proved that. Is it therefore a case of commitment on the part of decision makers, Businesses, Retailers or investors? Who is responsible for making this practice wide spread?

The fashion industry has in many ways lead the way in the VALUE ADD movement, they have however let themselves down by unfair practices especially the working conditions of the producers, we have all heard about PRIMARK being associated to the so called sweat shops.

Diseases Most Common to African Americans in Society

Diseases are part of life and people have to contend and deal with them. There are so many interventions and remedies available due to great medical strides technologically. For this reason, many that get access to health care and information all around the world will reduce their chances of going down with disease dramatically. There are certain diseases that have been rife among particular groups of people. An example is black Americans who only form less than 15% of the American population; yet some chronic ailments among them are at a record high. The following is a look at all the most common diseases that have been seen prevalent in the African American community.

In 2006, statistics showed that almost half of all new AIDS cases were reported from the members of this community. Furthermore in the same year, bisexual and gay black men were the leading in numbers of most affected groups of the American society regarding HIV and AIDS. This shows clearly that the sexually transmitted disease is quite common perhaps most common in this particular group of people in America.

Another disease that has been seen pretty common in the African American society is Asthma. According to observations, black people and the Hispanics have been affected more by Asthma in the country. There have been several reasons cited for the widespread of this disease including poverty and genetics. Many poor children from the black and Hispanic communities have plenty of exposure to elements that trigger asthma like smoke from cigarette sparking health problems.

Another common disease among African Americans is Sickle cell anemia. This condition sees cells take an abnormal shape that can somewhat be described as rigid. The cells will look like sickles and for this; they will be compromised in function. It has been found that 1 person in 12 black Americans will have the sickle cell trait. There are many complications that are associated with the disease including renal failure, jaundice, stroke and others.

Diabetes is another common disease among black Americans. Experts have continued to find out whether there is a genetic link that makes this community prone to the illness. Men and women of the African American community who are over 20 years and suffer with diabetes are estimated to be 2.5 million. Many are those that do not know they suffer from the disease. This problem has been seen to be caused by poor feeding habits, lack of physical exercises and so on. The complications brought about by diabetes include blindness, amputation and even kidney failure.

Coronary heart disease is another problem in the community. Factors like intake of high-cholesterol foods and weight problems have contributed to the ailment. However, the above diseases are being managed better in the present day and overall deaths due to the diseases have declined over the past few years.

The Causes of Poverty in Africa

Poverty is a disease. It is certainly terrible. It is undesirable, yet it is very common in some parts of the world while it is nearly unknown in some other parts of the world. Africa is one of the continents of the world. In fact, the continent is the second largest continent in the world and is only surpassed by Asia which is the largest. The size of Africa is estimated at about 30.2 million kmĀ² (11.7 million sq mi) to include adjacent islands and it covers 6% of the Earth’s total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area.

The continent is mostly occupied by people referred to as Africans and the people are mostly black in complexion. This is however not to suggest that there are no people with other complexions. Some Africans are even white while there are other complexions in-between. The complexions in Africa are best described as beautiful and elegant mix as well as pot-pourri. Between 1982-2009, the population of the continent has doubled and the population is currently estimated at 1 billion. The continent is tropical and poverty is common.

Poverty, whether by relative definition or absolute one is prevalent on the continent as about 70 percent of Africans still live on less than $2 a day and par capita income is extremely low. Hence, unemployment in most African countries is in excess of 20% while diseases and wars have ravaged many. The capacity for self improvement of many has been compromised predisposing many to crime and premature deaths. Hence, illiteracy is high and governance is weak. Against weak development indicators and wide spread poverty, Africa as a continent is usually referred to as a developing/least developed continent.

On the continent, poverty is in fact deadlier than HIV/AIDS. Although the problem is curable, its prevalence and endemic nature on the continent suggests that it is nearly incurable. Most people on the continent are poor and trapped in the problem. Although they wanted to be out of the problem, it is impossible for them to. Systemic problems appear to have kept them perpetually there. Many battle the problem all their lives and their generations are also banished into it explaining the term Inter generational poverty trap.

The following are the causes of poverty in Africa:

Corruption and Poor leadership: Many government officials on the continent are corrupt and abuse their public offices. The governance environment is largely irresponsible. Resources meant for all the citizenry are cornered and embezzled by few just because they are privileged to be in government or corridors of power.
Lifestyles: The lifestyles of many Africans induce poverty. Many engage in ways of life that keep them forever in the problem. For instance, many celebrate normal events like naming ceremony in outlandish manners. Africans throw parties on nearly anything. They even borrow money to celebrate dead people in events called burial ceremonies. People without stable income borrow money with huge interests just to meet cultural expectations through needless celebrations. This is one of the major causes of the problem on the continent
Illiteracy: There is high level of illiteracy on the continent. Very many Africans do not have access to formal education. This affects their reasoning faculties and drastically reduces their capacity to generate income in the modern environment being driven competitively by knowledge in the knowledge industry
Resignation: So many people on the continent have resigned to faith and accepted their situation as normal and sometimes divine. Their thinking now reflect poverty and they have come to see themselves as poor and that there is nothing they could do. They thus live a life that accepts the problem and perceive it as normal.
Systemic dis-empowerment: Life on the continent favors the rich and poor people find it difficult to actualize themselves in the system. In many instances, employment and opportunities are hijacked by the rich and those from poor background find it difficult to move up the ladder of success and affluence. The environment thus perpetrates and perpetuates the problem on the continent.

Turning Our Backs On HIV/AIDS In Africa

When I was in high school, many years ago, I recall reading Edgar Allen Poe’s short story, The Masque of the Red Death. The story is an allegory, which means that the point of the story lays beneath and between the words Poe penned. Poe claimed to dislike allegories. But despite his professed aversion to them, in 1843 he wrote the ‘Masque’ and it became one of his better-known works. If you have never had the opportunity to read it, I highly recommend that you do. You can find the story on the Internet and read it for free.

The story tells the tale of Prince Prospero who ruled in some far off land. A plague came to his realm and struck with ferocity upon the people he ruled. The plague became known as the “Red Death” and in Poe’s own words:

” The scarlet stains upon the body and especially upon the face of the victim, were the pest ban which shut him out from the aid and from the sympathy of his fellow-men. And the whole seizure, progress and termination of the disease, were the incidents of half an hour…”

When about half of the people Prince Prospero ruled over succumbed to the illness, the prince hatched a plan to take one thousand healthy friends and take refuge in one of his castles. He barred entry and exit from the castle and intended to wait out in splendor, the disease that coursed through his land.

At the end of 2006, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), between 34 million and 47 million people are living with HIV/AIDS. During 2006, between 2.5 million and 3.5 million people died from AIDS. Over half of all the people who live with HIV/AIDS and die from AIDS live in Africa.

In Sub-Saharan Africa, 5.9% of the adult population is infected with HIV/AIDS. In the same area, 2.1 million adults and children died of the disease in 2006. In North America, 0.8% of the population is infected, and 18,000 people died from AIDS in 2006.

Prince Prospero’s idea was simply to let the Red Death burn itself out. Once the disease had left, he and his guests could leave the castle and repopulate the land. This is the reason why the prince chose his guests principally from among the nobles and knights of his realm. To be fair, he also brought in some entertainers and artists, knowing that he and his guests would have to be entertained during their seclusion.

In 2001, the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria was started. Since then, $3.3 billion has been obtained from nations throughout the world to help fight disease in Africa. In addition to this, the U.S. Government has contributed an additional $1.1 billion under the President’s Plan for AIDS relief.

According to the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, in 2005, the U.S. Government distributed nearly $3 billion for HIV/AIDS assistance to the 50 states, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This single-year assistance is nearly equal to all of the assistance given by all nations over the past 5 years to combat HIV/AIDS in Africa.

After being locked up in the castle for six months, Prince Prospero’s guests were experiencing a little “cabin fever”. So the prince decided to throw a big costumed ball in his apartments within the castle. The prince had seven apartments – a not insignificant number. Each apartment was decorated in differing styles with different colors. One apartment, however, was black and blood red. Most of the guests didn’t go into this apartment because it seemed so dark and foreboding.

Because HIV/AIDS suppresses the human immune system, diseases that were normally suppressed within the human population have returned. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of those diseases. Contrary to what most people believe, TB was never actually cured. Through a regime of drugs, man found a way to suppress the disease. But for the most part, the disease is suppressed by one’s own immune system. Today, it is believed that as many as one-third of the human population on Earth carries a TB strain within their bodies. But so long as their immune system is unimpaired, these estimated 2 billion people may anticipate living their entire lives without ever experiencing a single symptom of TB.

The ball the prince holds is a delight to everyone in the castle. People are enjoying themselves and seem to be completely oblivious to the horrors taking place outside the castle walls. But then, all of a sudden, there appears one person who is costumed as a victim of the Red Death. The crowd shrieks in horror and moves away in fear and loathing from this person. The Prince flies into a rage at seeing one of his apparent guests mocking and terrorizing both he and everyone else at the ball. He demands that the perpetrator be apprehended and hanged from the castle wall for his effrontery.

Because of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa, and the lack of drugs and money to combat the disease, TB has not only returned to plague the people of Africa, it has also mutated into new strains. Multi-Drug Resistant TB (MDR-TB) is a strain that is extremely difficult to control and requires the use of many anti-retroviral drugs to combat. WHO has issued repeated warnings that, left unchecked, this new strain of TB can become a global pandemic. Because TB is spread by air, there is no way to protect oneself from contracting the disease. If you are around someone with active TB, then you are probably going to contract the disease.

Now, a new strain of TB has been discovered and identified as Extremely Drug Resistant TB (XDR-TB). Some scientists believe XDR-TB is untreatable. In studies conducted by WHO and the U.S. Center for Disease Control, in Russia and Asia, 53 patients suffering from XDR-TB were treated with anti-retroviral drugs. Despite this treatment, 52 of the patients died within just 25 days of contracting the illness.

The prince and his knights pursue the offending guest through the apartments until they corner him in the black and blood red, seventh apartment. There, to their shock and horror, they discover that the perpetrator was not wearing a costume, but in fact, is infected with the Red Death plague. Within a short time, the prince and all who had gathered within the castle walls perished from the disease.

According to WHO, today approximately 4% of all known XDR-TB cases are found in patients residing in the United States. WHO and other agencies warn that the failure of developed nations to seriously confront and combat this growing epidemic and the HIV/AIDS epidemic that has spawned XDR-TB, will result in a severe mortality impact worldwide.

An Overview Of Health Insurance in South Africa

The Insurance industry in South Africa is an ever-increasing industry, with new insurance companies appearing all the time, even other business have now jumped on the band wagon to offer insurance such as major food chains. Amongst all the different types of insurances that one finds here, such as car, household, life, travel and a myriad of others, I want to particularly speak about health insurance in South Africa and what the current state and trends are at this moment.

A larger percentage of the South African population is underprivileged or are in the lower income bracket with a leaser percentage of the population in the middle to higher income brackets. As a result many people have to rely on the public health care system, which is over-used and under-financed. Because of a lack of funding and inadequate services many middle to higher income earners have to take out private health insurance from private companies. The private health care system is ever increasing as more and more people come to rely on it, a total of 18 percent of the population rely on medical aid schemes.

South Africa has had major challenges in the health care sector over the past decade with sharply rising medical costs. As a result insurance providers had to get crafty by creating insurance schemes that could be afforded by the general public. Medical aid schemes have been on the increase too with major health insurer being Discovery Health with 1.5 million members. As I mentioned before there are many insurers offering medical insurance and medical aid schemes in South Africa and it is important to shop around and look for one that suits your needs. It is also very important that you read ALL the fine print, as many health insurance providers will do anything to not have to settle a claim, this goes for insurance providers in South Africa and the rest of the world.

South Africa is also seeing an increase in interest from foreign insurance companies, offering normal cover for all and also some special policies for expatriates. These special policies can include transporting the deceased via aeroplane back to their home country. The cost of international insurance cover can vary quite a lot depending on the type of cover and the age of the insured.

The future of the health care system in South Africa is uncertain. Government has proposed a new National Health Insurance (NHI), which will provide free medical care for all, although some sceptics say that Government’s ambitious health care plans are likely to fail. Government hopes to implement the plan in 2012, starting with the rural areas, and then gradually roll over to the rest of the country over 14 years. A sceptic says that for a NSI to work you would need at least 10 million tax payers and that South Africa only has about 5 million. South Africa with a population of 49.9 million in international terms has the smallest tax payer base.

South Africa seems to still have a long way to go before the health insurance industry and health industry on a whole is balanced to benefit all who need health care. If the sceptics are right then it seems that the private health insurance sector will still be growing in the near future.

Did you know an eye exam could save your life? A trained optometrist can detect if you may have a serious condition related to your eyes. We don’t often think about our health when going for an exam, we just want our new prescription eyewear. A good Eye exam can uncover normally hidden conditions that may have gone undetected for years. Why? A lot of exams are done by an optician. Opticians do not have the training needed to uncover the problem. Be sure to use an experienced optician for your next visit.

Poverty Trap in Africa

According to Sachs, Africa is characterized by growth in population, lack of growth in food production, fragmentation of land, and lack of basic infrastructure pushing it in the poverty trap. They have a high child mortality rate due to poor health programs. In contrast, the British colonial existence in India at least endowed her with a sound railway network penetrating to her villages. No similar infrastructure is found in Africa.

However, the economic burdens in Africa can be easily overcome. According to Sachs, the barriers to economic development evident in Africa can be overcome at a low cost, but finance is difficult for the African nations living on subsistence. “The escape from extreme poverty” argues Sachs, “requires four basic types of investment”. The proposed investments are required in (i) Agriculture (ii) Health (iii) Education, and (iv) Infrastructure, to attain sustained growth. A temporary aid over several years if utilized optimally can lead to permanent rise in productivity.

The initial external investment can be used for boosting agricultural productivity, and a parallel can be seen in the green revolution in India in the latter half of 1960s. With the initial investment in agriculture, the external aid can be further utilized for boosting growth in education, health, and infrastructure thereby triggering a process of self-sustained growth (Sachs 231). In agriculture, the experience shows that with little cost of inputs in terms of fertilizer and high yielding varieties of seeds, the return is spectacular. The yield per hectare can grow from as little as 0.5 ton per hectare to as high as 1 to 5 tons per hectare with as little investment as $200 but small farmers lack even that little finance. The same goes for health. A little investment can go a long way in controlling most of the diseases that commonly originate from infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies, and unsafe childbirth. The nations like Zanzibar and Tanzania have already shown dramatic results from the help that arrived in the form of mass bed net, anti-mosquito spray from the Global Fund, and the United States.

Similarly a little investment in education and literacy will open doors to mass employment in agriculture, exports, agricultural processing and industry simultaneously with interventions in infrastructural upgradation and build up.

Regional development strategy is seen as going a long way in generating economic prosperity, employment and sound infrastructure in underdeveloped regions. Sachs offers two examples of successful regional development – Tennessee Value Authority (TVA) created under the New Deal package covering seven states in the southeastern United States, and world’s largest regional development project in the Western China Development Project. Out-migration from regionally underdeveloped to the developed regions is yet another strategy of development. However, migration of unskilled laborers from poor nations to rich nations is a deeply contentious issue. Also migration and sending remittances by the migrants are only part solutions to the development.

The UN sponsored Millennium Development Project and the Millennium Village Projects are quick impact investments aimed at uplifting depressed regions and villages. The goal here is to empower communities to achieve sustained long term growth through key investments in agriculture, health, education, and infrastructure. The initial results have been positive for agriculture productivity in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi. The progress was also seen in health and education.

Sachs demystifies the concept that nations like Israel, India, Taiwan, and Korea developed on the strength of their internal resources as he goes on to show the sources of their external funding and time when these nations received financial aid that helped them take off before external aid became redundant. The railway infrastructure in India was bequeathed to her by the British rule. The green revolution in India was externally aided. It is also a myth that aid-propelled growth is unsustainable and that aid can sustain only on a small scale.

Health and Fitness Spas in South Africa

Unique health spa destination

Why is a South Africa spa experience so relaxing and effective is the fact many of the luxury city chic spas are located in some of the most magnificent natural environment on the planet. Several overlook tinkling streams, ocean seascapes and mountain vistas while others are placed in mystical man-made grottos, hewn and crafted from the mountain side!

South Africa health spas aren’t limited to the large city centres. Most of the rural holiday destinations offer wellness, well being and vitality as an extra allure to the more tried and tested facilities, points of interest and activities. The Cape Winelands, the Midlands of Kwa-Zulu Natal, the Garden Route and South Africa’s bush are visitor ‘hang-outs’ with spectacular health spas on tap.

Golf estate health spas

Golf in South Africa yearly draws in thousands of visitors from all over the globe and most of the perfect golf locations in South Africa have luxury spas on the property, providing visitors a well-earned respite from the travails and challenges of the course.

The glistening Garden Route venue of the Presidents Cup, Fancourt Resort, Country Club and Golf Estate includes a health spa dominated by a heated Roman Bath with spectacular views of the Outeniqua Mountains whereas Pezula, Arabella, Erinvale, Selborne and Pearl Valley, all situated in popular tourist destinations, are but a handful of golfing locations in South Africa which offer indulging health spa treatments as a welcome addition to the general golfing experience.

Bush spas

Southern Africa is a renowned big game safari destination there are a large number of privately owned games reserves, national parks and animal sanctuaries providing a perfect bush encounter.

In an effort to stay competitively priced, numerous top-end luxury game lodges have secluded and remote wilderness bush spas presenting a range of health spa remedies as an extra attraction of a Big 5 safari bundle.

Etali Lodge in Madikwe offers mini-spa treatments, whereas the Bushman’s Kloof Wilderness Reserve in the Cedarberg, the Falaza Game Reserve in Hluhluwe and the Sabi Sands Earth Lodge all possess magnificent spas situated in the tranquillity of the Africa bush!

Arranging a luxury spa holiday in South Africa

Tourists who wish to mix a perennial South Africa holiday experience with wellness, well being and vitality can do so with ease. Online South African booking websites provide entries of accommodation that offer refreshing health spa treatments in spectacular surroundings.